Just outside Charlottesville, Va., the roads lose their markings as they wind through the woods, passing an occasional church, a cemetery and a plantation known as Highland, owned by America's fifth president James Monroe. For the first time in its 225-year history, the site has begun telling the stories of the African-American men and women who were enslaved there, and consulting with their descendants.
One of those descendants is George Monroe, Jr. As a kid, Monroe, Jr. remembers his father driving these roads to visit relatives who have lived for generations in an area they called Monroetown. On their way, they'd pass Monroe's Highland.
"I used to always say, 'You know what Dad, that's pretty cool, that's our last name,'" recalls George Monroe, Jr.
His dad wouldn't say anything, but as George got older, he persisted. "Are we linked?" he'd ask. It took years, but his family eventually began talking about it. They were descendants of the 49 men and women who James Monroe once enslaved and profited from at Highland. After emancipation, many kept the Monroe name, acquired land, built houses, and created Monroetown.
Today the area is surrounded by wineries and other tourist draws, like Thomas Jefferson's nearby plantation, Monticello. In fact, Jefferson helped Monroe buy the Highland property, which is now run as a historic site, hosting weddings, concerts, and thousands of visitors each year.
Until recently, however, the enslaved weren't much talked about. Guides at Highland knew only that some of the enslaved had been sold and sent to Florida. And then, about two years ago, George Monroe, Jr. paid Highland a visit. He approached a staff member at the visitor's center and said, "My last name is Monroe and my family comes from off this plantation."
Since then, George Monroe, Jr. has been working with Highland's Executive Director Sara Bon-Harper to build relationships with more than a dozen descendants in the immediate area and across Virginia. Bon-Harper wants them to tell the story of Highland.
"The theme of having one's eyes opened to reality that one was completely ignorant of, I think, goes through race relations in Virginia," said Bon-Harper. "And my response is to be completely open to learning the things that I have not known and Highland is really, really, excited to have these contacts now and having the willing collaboration of the descendant communities is tremendous."
One afternoon earlier this year, a group of descendants toured the property with a guide. They paused, in deep reflection, as they passed a 300-year old oak tree, which their ancestors would have seen.
"The African-American community can look at trees in a number of ways," says George Monroe, Jr. "You think about family trees, you think about how these branches extend. You can look at trees in terms of the legacy of lynching, a symbol of death. But then this tree, you also think about the fact that it's seen so many different things: the revolution, slavery, civil war, reconstruction. It's seen all kinds of things up until this point. And I think history should be far and reaching just like that."
In telling that fuller version of history, Highland will have to change, says Bon-Harper. Some of those changes will be major and require a revamped vision plan for the site, so that tourists learn about slavery everywhere they go.
Some of those changes have already started to emerge. Whereas before the story of enslavement stopped at slaves being sold and sent to Florida, guides now tell people about the large, free black community near Highland. The newer story helps bridge the past with the present and opens the door for deeper conversations about Jim Crow segregationist laws, explicit and implicit racism, and white supremacist violence.
Some changes will also be more subtle. On their tour, the group of descendants went inside the big house, which, the guide told them, was built by Monroe. But Waltine Eubanks, a descendant, pointed out that it was more likely constructed by her enslaved ancestors.
"I would like to see the validation of the people who contributed to the phenomenal place that this is," says Eubanks. "And I think that this project will help to bring that to fruition, [so] that when visitors come, they won't think that James Monroe did all of this by himself — that there were people who were beaten, killed, whatever, however horrific the situation was, to make this what it is. It took slave labor, and these were people who were not dummies, they were very intelligent and very highly skilled."
Highland is not alone in realizing they've only told half the story. Earlier this year, about 30 miles away at James Madison's former plantation Montpelier, Bon-Harper and George Monroe Jr. joined about 50 site directors, archaeologists, historians, and descendants at the first ever National Summit on Teaching Slavery. The aim is to create a guide to tell more accurate and complete narratives. That meeting followed a lengthy, scathing report by the Southern Poverty Law Center that found U.S. schools do an abysmal job at teaching slavery.
"What we're doing here now, we have opened the boil related to the slaves and our descendants here on this plantation, that is also relevant to all plantations, and we are willing to do the work — the dirty, nasty, stinky, funky, pussy work --to get our situation healed," said Eubanks.
George Monroe, Jr. agreed. American history is messy and filled with hard truths, he said, so lay it all out and talk about it. "And then let's move on from there," he said. "And you have a personal choice to make, you have a commitment to make at that point. And once you know the full story, now what are you going to do about it? What are you going to do about it?"
What people do with it, he says, isn't up to him. But what is, is making sure the truth is finally told.
MICHEL MARTIN, HOST:
We're going to hear now about what one historic institution is doing to acknowledge its past. Just outside Charlottesville, Va., America's fifth president, James Monroe, owned a plantation called Highland. For the first time in its 225-year history, the site has begun talking with descendants of the African-Americans that he enslaved. Jordy Yager has this story.
JORDY YAGER, BYLINE: The cemetery where George Monroe, Jr.'s grandparents are buried is hidden away and hard to find.
UNIDENTIFIED CHILD: That grave over there is under the...
GEORGE MONROE JR: That's the Monroe grave, right?
UNIDENTIFIED CHILD: Yeah. You want to see?
YAGER: He has his kids with them at the cemetery, which is a few miles from where James Monroe once enslaved at least 49 men, women and children. After emancipation, many kept the Monroe name, bought land and built Monroetown. Over the generations, many Monroes moved on. But they come back to visit.
MONROE: The road that we took to come down here is a road that my father used to bring us when we'd come down here. And I'd always say, you know what, dad? That's pretty cool. That's our last name. I'm, like, 5, 6 years old.
YAGER: His dad would nod.
MONROE: And then it wasn't until I got, like, to maybe 16 or 17, and I started asking questions. I said, are we linked? And they were, like, well, yeah. But then they wouldn't say anything else about it, right?
YAGER: Highland is now run as a historic site near Thomas Jefferson's Monticello. It hosts weddings, concerts and draws thousands of tourists each year. But until recently, the enslaved weren't much talked about. And that's a problem, says executive director Sara Bon-Harper. So, over the last year, she's forged relationships with more than a dozen descendants. She wants them to tell the story of Highland.
SARA BON-HARPER: Thinking about how things are going to shift or change or evolve is a great question because I have no idea (laughter). And that's OK.
YAGER: One afternoon, the group of descendants toured the property with a guide, walking past a 300-year-old oak tree.
UNIDENTIFIED PERSON #1: Your ancestors definitely saw this tree (laughter).
UNIDENTIFIED PERSON #2: (Whistling).
YAGER: Some changes will be major. Bon-Harper wants tourists to learn about slavery everywhere they go - discuss Monroe, discuss the enslaved. This bridges the past with the present, opening the door for talks about Jim Crow laws, racism and white supremacist violence. Changes are also in the details, in the language.
UNIDENTIFIED PERSON #1: When I started, people said this was Monroe's study.
YAGER: On their tour, the group of descendants goes inside the big house.
UNIDENTIFIED PERSON #1: But, in terms of, like, the progression of the house, when Monroe built it in 1818...
YAGER: When Monroe built it - actually, Waltine Eubanks says, it was her enslaved ancestors, like carpenters Peter and George, who built the houses.
WALTINE EUBANKS: When visitors come, they won't think that James Monroe did all of this by himself.
YAGER: Highland's not alone in realizing they've only told half the story. Earlier this year, at James Madison's former plantation Montpelier, Bon-Harper and George Monroe, Jr. joined site directors, archaeologists, historians and descendants to create a guide to tell more accurate and complete narratives. That's important for George's cousin Waltine, who says the painful history of slavery and its continuing legacies are like a boil on the skin.
EUBANKS: What we are doing here now - we have opened the boil related to the slaves and now descendants here on this plantation that is also relevant to all plantations. And we are willing to do the work - the dirty, nasty, stinky, pussy work - to get our situation healed.
YAGER: George agrees. American history is messy and filled with hard truths, he says, so lay it all out and talk about it
MONROE: And then let's move on from there. You know, and you have a personal choice to make, you have a commitment to make that point. Once you know the full story, now what are you going to do about it? What are you going to do about it?
YAGER: What people do with it, he says, isn't up to him. But what is is making sure the truth is finally told.
For NPR News, I'm Jordy Yager in Charlottesville, Va. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.